SAMPLE PAPER 1 - Type 1 Diabetes Management
Student's First Name, Middle Initial(s), Last Name
Course Number and Name
Instructor's Name and Title
Assignment Due Date
Type 1 Diabetes Management
One of the most challenging health issues in the United States is seeing diseases limiting the productivity of a population the way diabetes does. According to the World Health Organization (2018), the number of people with diabetes in the United States keeps on increasing: it increased up to 422 million by 2014 from 108 million in 1980. This upsurge, which shows a significant rise in a critical health problem over time, shows how the general population will continue being at risk as time advances. Jacobsen et al. (2018) further found that the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been rising by 3% yearly, with productive adults being highly vulnerable. Regarding that, it is vital to introduce an intervention that seeks to educate the adult population about type 1 diabetes management.
Proposed Intent of the Health Communication Message
After completing the education campaign, the target population (adults with children added between 35-45 years) is expected to:
Diabetes affects not only people’s productivity but also causes deaths to many people. Diabetes, without classification, was responsible for 1.6 million deaths of adults in 2016 (World Health Organization, 2018). Type 1 diabetes differs from type 2 diabetes in that type 1 is characterized by deficient insulin production, while type 2 is non-insulin-dependent (Goldstein & Müller-Wieland, 2016). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher than type 1, but type 1 is riskier since its prevention is not known with the current knowledge.
As the global health industry strives to make people safe and manage health issues affecting the population, there is a need to focus on type 1 diabetes. According to Anisman (2015), adults are vulnerable the same as the young population, and children are also at risk due to genetic connection. Given this, it is a widespread problem, and it is crucial to work with a population group that can help to make a significant change. Generally known, adults between 35-45 years comprise an exposed population group that is highly interested in what is happening to the entire population. They are more responsible since they have children, and can do everything possible to keep their families safe.
Health-related campaigns have been used to trigger behavior change in the past and can make the current campaign successful. The primary target is adults between 35 and 45 years but with children. Indeed, there is no denying that education campaigns can play an integral role in informing the masses, particularly when they touch on a critical issue, such as their health. The outcome is better if tools of mass communication are used.
Theory description: mass media is used to inform people about many national issues, and can be very useful in passing information about the management of type 1 diabetes. A large mass can also access mass communication channels, and there is a high chance that a significant population will receive the intended information.
The rationale of choosing the theory: from the World Health Organization (2018) statistics, the population at risk of diabetes continues increasing over time. If the same projection is used, it implies that more people will be at risk of type 1 diabetes as time advances. By using mass media, the population expected to make a change will receive the information and use it appropriately.
Health Communication Campaign
Target Population: the population of interest remains adults aged between 35 and 45 years and with kids.
For better communication outcomes, it is crucial to use both mainstream and social media. Television and radio remain highly reliable communication tools when it comes to mass communication. Many people have access to these mediums of communication, and their ownership is high too. On the other hand, the world continues to make social media a reliable tool for communication and receiving information promptly. It is used since people have become tech-savvy and also high internet users (Information Resources Management Association, 2018). Using both methods, concurrently, is expected to achieve great results.
The message will be primarily on the risk factors of type 1 diabetes and vulnerabilities. The population will also be informed about the most reliable management strategies. The objective is to ensure that people with diabetes can be productive despite having the disease. Also, it sensitizes the importance of improving lifestyles to ensure other populations are not at risk of diabetes. In this case, adults will help to protect their children.
Strengths: mainstream and social media have been proven to be effective when it comes to mass communication. Also, education campaigns are highly reliable when it comes to behavior change and creating public awareness.
Weaknesses: it can be difficult to monitor whether the message is reaching people or not. Besides that, using ads in social media can be disruptive, and people can ignore the message. Unless the message is relayed during critical times such as during news bulletin, it stands minimal chances to reach masses. This strategy can be costly too.
Campaign materials: the campaign will heavily rely on public service announcements and digitally created ads. Posters in social media will be used too.
The chosen methods are expected to reach a significant portion of the target population. At the end of the campaign, the information should reach over 80% of adults between 35 and 45 years. Eventually, there should be some behavior and lifestyle changes to help in the management of type 1 diabetes, which is the primary aim of the campaign.
Anisman, H. (2015). Stress and your health: From vulnerability to resilience. John Wiley & Sons.
Goldstein, B. J., & Müller-Wieland, D. (Eds.). (2016). Type 2 diabetes: principles and practice. CRC Press.
Information Resources Management Association. (2018). Social media marketing: Breakthroughs in research and practice. IGI Global.
Jacobsen, L. M., Haller, M. J., & Schatz, D. A. (2018). Understanding pre-type 1 diabetes: The key to prevention. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9, 70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845548/
World Health Organization. (2018, October 30). Diabetes. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes
SAMPLE PAPER 2 - Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
Nursing theories differ profoundly on matters involving their concepts and propositions. When using grand nursing theories, there is a problem in that they are broader in scope and can confuse their interrelationships. Thus, they cannot describe, explain, or predict a phenomenon precisely. This concept map presents Jean Watson’s theory of human caring and describes the relationship between its concepts. It is an example of middle range theories whose primary tenets are verifiable through testing.
Jean Watson’s Theory: Concept Map
Overview of Watson’s Theory
Currently, a significant number of people view nursing as a profession. When considering becoming a professional nurse, it is essential to be compassionate due to the critical issues that one is likely to experience occasionally. Compassion is necessary since a nurse cannot take care of patients’ problems as required without it. Regarding that, as part of the middle range theories, Jean Watson’s approach is mainly grounded on how nurses care for the patients. More so, it assesses how care progresses so that it can promote health while enhancing wellness and restoring health. It is for these reasons that it sets out several principles and concepts particular to practice.
As a defining element of Watson’s theory, nursing should put the patient’s interest first. Clark (2016) suggests that Watson perceives nursing as a practice for promoting health and preventing illness. This way, the health of the patient becomes better with every attention they get from the healthcare providers. As Watson and Woodward (2010) further observe, the principal mandate of healthcare as Watson recommends is the treatment of diseases; caring becomes the guiding principle, and the practice should not be a simple medical cure. As such, the health of the patient should improve.
Watson’s model has seven assumptions with the first being the suggestion that the only way to demonstrate and practice care effectively is through an interpersonal approach. As (Wayne) 2019 further suggests, caring should satisfy human needs and promote the health of the individual and his/her family. The fourth assumption is that caring should accept the patients the way they are while the fifth is that a caring environment is imperative and should allow the patients to choose the best action for them at some point. Sixthly, caring and curing sciences complement each other and the central element of nursing is the practice of caring.
As illustrated in the conceptual model, apart from human being and health, the other major concepts of Watson’s theory include society and nursing. Also, it considers actual caring occasion as well as the transpersonal segment. According to Wayne (2019), society has all to do with the values that determine behavior and goals in practice since nursing is a part of every community. Human being represents the people seeking care who deserve respect, assistance and should be understood too. Health signifies the overall state of physical, mental, and social conditions of a person while nursing represents the illness experiences that need professional mediation. Nursing provides cure to illnesses which leads to a healthy populace: it should be optimal at all times. Actual caring occasion means that there should be actions that involve nurse and the patient. The last part is the transpersonal concept which states that the nurse and the person seeking care affect each other since they are in a working union.
This segment contains three interrelated elements. Firstly, as a phenomenal field, nursing involves the totality of human experience in one’s world. It means that there is an individual frame which only the person knows. Regarding the self, there are perceptions of “I” or “ME” that affect the entire practice. Thirdly, time brings past, present, and future incidents together: they should fuse to enhance objective and subjective nursing practice.
Clark, C. (2016). Watson’s human caring theory: Pertinent transpersonal and humanities concepts for educators. Humanities, 5(2), 21.
Watson, J., & Woodward, T. K. (2010). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing theories and nursing practice, 3, 351-369.
Wayne, G. (2019, March 13). Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Nurseslabs. Retrieved from https://nurseslabs.com/jean-watsons-philosophy-theory-transpersonal-caring/#what-is-watson8217s-theory-of-transpersonal-caring